Results: This study included 136 healthy, singleton, term-born newborns. Reduced placental thickness was also associated with lower birthweight. We additionally examined whether these associations were modified by placental concentrations of essential elements zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). Our study supported the importance of placental epigenetic changes in placental development and fetal growth. No significant differences were observed in cord insertion measures. We concur with this view, as the sporadic examination does not provide sufficient training for young pathologists, and it does not allow the routine pathologist to obtain sufficient background knowledge as to what constitutes a truly normal placenta. Our analysis was restricted to singleton live births with a placental examination (n = 1229). Analysis suggested that the impact of all maternal characteristics except smoking was consistent with mediation by placental characteristics. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth. You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Placental abruption can deprive the baby of oxygen and nutrients and cause heavy bleeding in the mother. The placenta also controls maternal metabolism during pregnancy by secreting a variety of hormones into the maternal circulation. Click on the buttons below to learn more about Eutheria. Data on the effects of milder forms of variation in maternal thyroid function on intrauterine growth are less well examined. Placental weight in the first pregnancy might help to identify women who could be at risk for developing preeclampsia in a second pregnancy. The placental mammals include such diverse forms as whales, elephants, shrews, and armadillos. Associations between features of gross placental morphology and fetal growth among singleton pregnancies have been reported in several studies (6)(7)(8)(9)(10). High-resolution images of the chorionic plate were recorded. In women who smoked throughout pregnancy, placental weight and birthweight decreased by number of cigarettes; however, above 11-12 cigarettes we estimated no further decrease (Pnon-linearity < 0.001). Surprisingly, our results showed a higher R-squared for prediction of BW compared with other studies, although it was methodologically different. Study 2 utilized an adoptive sibling relative difference design (N = 123 same-sex pairs) to control for genetic similarity while using relative sibling difference in age at time of adoption to predict relative sibling difference in attention span/persistence.
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